C/C++ - Distance IR Bricklet

This is the description of the C/C++ API bindings for the Distance IR Bricklet. General information and technical specifications for the Distance IR Bricklet are summarized in its hardware description.

An installation guide for the C/C++ API bindings is part of their general description.

Examples

The example code below is Public Domain (CC0 1.0).

Simple

Download (example_simple.c)

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#include <stdio.h>

#include "ip_connection.h"
#include "bricklet_distance_ir.h"

#define HOST "localhost"
#define PORT 4223
#define UID "XYZ" // Change XYZ to the UID of your Distance IR Bricklet

int main(void) {
    // Create IP connection
    IPConnection ipcon;
    ipcon_create(&ipcon);

    // Create device object
    DistanceIR dir;
    distance_ir_create(&dir, UID, &ipcon);

    // Connect to brickd
    if(ipcon_connect(&ipcon, HOST, PORT) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not connect\n");
        return 1;
    }
    // Don't use device before ipcon is connected

    // Get current distance
    uint16_t distance;
    if(distance_ir_get_distance(&dir, &distance) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not get distance, probably timeout\n");
        return 1;
    }

    printf("Distance: %f cm\n", distance/10.0);

    printf("Press key to exit\n");
    getchar();
    distance_ir_destroy(&dir);
    ipcon_destroy(&ipcon); // Calls ipcon_disconnect internally
    return 0;
}

Callback

Download (example_callback.c)

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#include <stdio.h>

#include "ip_connection.h"
#include "bricklet_distance_ir.h"

#define HOST "localhost"
#define PORT 4223
#define UID "XYZ" // Change XYZ to the UID of your Distance IR Bricklet

// Callback function for distance callback
void cb_distance(uint16_t distance, void *user_data) {
    (void)user_data; // avoid unused parameter warning

    printf("Distance: %f cm\n", distance/10.0);
}

int main(void) {
    // Create IP connection
    IPConnection ipcon;
    ipcon_create(&ipcon);

    // Create device object
    DistanceIR dir;
    distance_ir_create(&dir, UID, &ipcon);

    // Connect to brickd
    if(ipcon_connect(&ipcon, HOST, PORT) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not connect\n");
        return 1;
    }
    // Don't use device before ipcon is connected

    // Register distance callback to function cb_distance
    distance_ir_register_callback(&dir,
                                  DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE,
                                  (void *)cb_distance,
                                  NULL);

    // Set period for distance callback to 0.2s (200ms)
    // Note: The distance callback is only called every 0.2 seconds
    //       if the distance has changed since the last call!
    distance_ir_set_distance_callback_period(&dir, 200);

    printf("Press key to exit\n");
    getchar();
    distance_ir_destroy(&dir);
    ipcon_destroy(&ipcon); // Calls ipcon_disconnect internally
    return 0;
}

Threshold

Download (example_threshold.c)

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#include <stdio.h>

#include "ip_connection.h"
#include "bricklet_distance_ir.h"

#define HOST "localhost"
#define PORT 4223
#define UID "XYZ" // Change XYZ to the UID of your Distance IR Bricklet

// Callback function for distance reached callback
void cb_distance_reached(uint16_t distance, void *user_data) {
    (void)user_data; // avoid unused parameter warning

    printf("Distance: %f cm\n", distance/10.0);
}

int main(void) {
    // Create IP connection
    IPConnection ipcon;
    ipcon_create(&ipcon);

    // Create device object
    DistanceIR dir;
    distance_ir_create(&dir, UID, &ipcon);

    // Connect to brickd
    if(ipcon_connect(&ipcon, HOST, PORT) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not connect\n");
        return 1;
    }
    // Don't use device before ipcon is connected

    // Get threshold callbacks with a debounce time of 10 seconds (10000ms)
    distance_ir_set_debounce_period(&dir, 10000);

    // Register distance reached callback to function cb_distance_reached
    distance_ir_register_callback(&dir,
                                  DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE_REACHED,
                                  (void *)cb_distance_reached,
                                  NULL);

    // Configure threshold for distance "smaller than 30 cm"
    distance_ir_set_distance_callback_threshold(&dir, '<', 30*10, 0);

    printf("Press key to exit\n");
    getchar();
    distance_ir_destroy(&dir);
    ipcon_destroy(&ipcon); // Calls ipcon_disconnect internally
    return 0;
}

API

Every function of the C/C++ bindings returns an integer which describes an error code. Data returned from the device, when a getter is called, is handled via call by reference. These parameters are labeled with the ret_ prefix.

Possible error codes are:

  • E_OK = 0
  • E_TIMEOUT = -1
  • E_NO_STREAM_SOCKET = -2
  • E_HOSTNAME_INVALID = -3
  • E_NO_CONNECT = -4
  • E_NO_THREAD = -5
  • E_NOT_ADDED = -6 (unused since bindings version 2.0.0)
  • E_ALREADY_CONNECTED = -7
  • E_NOT_CONNECTED = -8
  • E_INVALID_PARAMETER = -9
  • E_NOT_SUPPORTED = -10
  • E_UNKNOWN_ERROR_CODE = -11
  • E_STREAM_OUT_OF_SYNC = -12

as defined in ip_connection.h.

All functions listed below are thread-safe.

Basic Functions

void distance_ir_create(DistanceIR *distance_ir, const char *uid, IPConnection *ipcon)

Creates the device object distance_ir with the unique device ID uid and adds it to the IPConnection ipcon:

DistanceIR distance_ir;
distance_ir_create(&distance_ir, "YOUR_DEVICE_UID", &ipcon);

This device object can be used after the IP connection has been connected (see examples above).

void distance_ir_destroy(DistanceIR *distance_ir)

Removes the device object distance_ir from its IPConnection and destroys it. The device object cannot be used anymore afterwards.

int distance_ir_get_distance(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint16_t *ret_distance)

Returns the distance measured by the sensor. The value is in mm and possible distance ranges are 40 to 300, 100 to 800 and 200 to 1500, depending on the selected IR sensor.

If you want to get the distance periodically, it is recommended to use the DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE callback and set the period with distance_ir_set_distance_callback_period().

Advanced Functions

int distance_ir_get_analog_value(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint16_t *ret_value)

Returns the value as read by a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. The value is between 0 and 4095.

Note

The value returned by distance_ir_get_distance() is averaged over several samples to yield less noise, while distance_ir_get_analog_value() gives back raw unfiltered analog values. The only reason to use distance_ir_get_analog_value() is, if you need the full resolution of the analog-to-digital converter.

If you want the analog value periodically, it is recommended to use the DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_ANALOG_VALUE callback and set the period with distance_ir_set_analog_value_callback_period().

int distance_ir_set_sampling_point(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint8_t position, uint16_t distance)

Sets a sampling point value to a specific position of the lookup table. The lookup table comprises 128 equidistant analog values with corresponding distances.

If you measure a distance of 50cm at the analog value 2048, you should call this function with (64, 5000). The utilized analog-to-digital converter has a resolution of 12 bit. With 128 sampling points on the whole range, this means that every sampling point has a size of 32 analog values. Thus the analog value 2048 has the corresponding sampling point 64 = 2048/32.

Sampling points are saved on the EEPROM of the Distance IR Bricklet and loaded again on startup.

Note

An easy way to calibrate the sampling points of the Distance IR Bricklet is implemented in the Brick Viewer. If you want to calibrate your Bricklet it is highly recommended to use this implementation.

int distance_ir_get_sampling_point(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint8_t position, uint16_t *ret_distance)

Returns the distance to a sampling point position as set by distance_ir_set_sampling_point().

int distance_ir_get_api_version(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint8_t ret_api_version[3])

Returns the version of the API definition (major, minor, revision) implemented by this API bindings. This is neither the release version of this API bindings nor does it tell you anything about the represented Brick or Bricklet.

int distance_ir_get_response_expected(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint8_t function_id, bool *ret_response_expected)

Returns the response expected flag for the function specified by the function ID parameter. It is true if the function is expected to send a response, false otherwise.

For getter functions this is enabled by default and cannot be disabled, because those functions will always send a response. For callback configuration functions it is enabled by default too, but can be disabled by distance_ir_set_response_expected(). For setter functions it is disabled by default and can be enabled.

Enabling the response expected flag for a setter function allows to detect timeouts and other error conditions calls of this setter as well. The device will then send a response for this purpose. If this flag is disabled for a setter function then no response is send and errors are silently ignored, because they cannot be detected.

See distance_ir_set_response_expected() for the list of function ID defines available for this function.

int distance_ir_set_response_expected(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint8_t function_id, bool response_expected)

Changes the response expected flag of the function specified by the function ID parameter. This flag can only be changed for setter (default value: false) and callback configuration functions (default value: true). For getter functions it is always enabled.

Enabling the response expected flag for a setter function allows to detect timeouts and other error conditions calls of this setter as well. The device will then send a response for this purpose. If this flag is disabled for a setter function then no response is send and errors are silently ignored, because they cannot be detected.

The following function ID defines are available for this function:

  • DISTANCE_IR_FUNCTION_SET_SAMPLING_POINT = 3
  • DISTANCE_IR_FUNCTION_SET_DISTANCE_CALLBACK_PERIOD = 5
  • DISTANCE_IR_FUNCTION_SET_ANALOG_VALUE_CALLBACK_PERIOD = 7
  • DISTANCE_IR_FUNCTION_SET_DISTANCE_CALLBACK_THRESHOLD = 9
  • DISTANCE_IR_FUNCTION_SET_ANALOG_VALUE_CALLBACK_THRESHOLD = 11
  • DISTANCE_IR_FUNCTION_SET_DEBOUNCE_PERIOD = 13
int distance_ir_set_response_expected_all(DistanceIR *distance_ir, bool response_expected)

Changes the response expected flag for all setter and callback configuration functions of this device at once.

int distance_ir_get_identity(DistanceIR *distance_ir, char ret_uid[8], char ret_connected_uid[8], char *ret_position, uint8_t ret_hardware_version[3], uint8_t ret_firmware_version[3], uint16_t *ret_device_identifier)

Returns the UID, the UID where the Bricklet is connected to, the position, the hardware and firmware version as well as the device identifier.

The position can be 'a', 'b', 'c' or 'd'.

The device identifier numbers can be found here. There is also a constant for the device identifier of this Bricklet.

Callback Configuration Functions

void distance_ir_register_callback(DistanceIR *distance_ir, int16_t callback_id, void *function, void *user_data)

Registers the given function with the given callback_id. The user_data will be passed as the last parameter to the function.

The available callback IDs with corresponding function signatures are listed below.

int distance_ir_set_distance_callback_period(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint32_t period)

Sets the period in ms with which the DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE callback is triggered periodically. A value of 0 turns the callback off.

The DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE callback is only triggered if the distance has changed since the last triggering.

The default value is 0.

int distance_ir_get_distance_callback_period(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint32_t *ret_period)

Returns the period as set by distance_ir_set_distance_callback_period().

int distance_ir_set_analog_value_callback_period(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint32_t period)

Sets the period in ms with which the DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_ANALOG_VALUE callback is triggered periodically. A value of 0 turns the callback off.

The DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_ANALOG_VALUE callback is only triggered if the analog value has changed since the last triggering.

The default value is 0.

int distance_ir_get_analog_value_callback_period(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint32_t *ret_period)

Returns the period as set by distance_ir_set_analog_value_callback_period().

int distance_ir_set_distance_callback_threshold(DistanceIR *distance_ir, char option, uint16_t min, uint16_t max)

Sets the thresholds for the DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE_REACHED callback.

The following options are possible:

Option Description
'x' Callback is turned off
'o' Callback is triggered when the distance is outside the min and max values
'i' Callback is triggered when the distance is inside the min and max values
'<' Callback is triggered when the distance is smaller than the min value (max is ignored)
'>' Callback is triggered when the distance is greater than the min value (max is ignored)

The default value is ('x', 0, 0).

The following defines are available for this function:

  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_OFF = 'x'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_OUTSIDE = 'o'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_INSIDE = 'i'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_SMALLER = '<'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_GREATER = '>'
int distance_ir_get_distance_callback_threshold(DistanceIR *distance_ir, char *ret_option, uint16_t *ret_min, uint16_t *ret_max)

Returns the threshold as set by distance_ir_set_distance_callback_threshold().

The following defines are available for this function:

  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_OFF = 'x'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_OUTSIDE = 'o'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_INSIDE = 'i'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_SMALLER = '<'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_GREATER = '>'
int distance_ir_set_analog_value_callback_threshold(DistanceIR *distance_ir, char option, uint16_t min, uint16_t max)

Sets the thresholds for the DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_ANALOG_VALUE_REACHED callback.

The following options are possible:

Option Description
'x' Callback is turned off
'o' Callback is triggered when the analog value is outside the min and max values
'i' Callback is triggered when the analog value is inside the min and max values
'<' Callback is triggered when the analog value is smaller than the min value (max is ignored)
'>' Callback is triggered when the analog value is greater than the min value (max is ignored)

The default value is ('x', 0, 0).

The following defines are available for this function:

  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_OFF = 'x'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_OUTSIDE = 'o'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_INSIDE = 'i'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_SMALLER = '<'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_GREATER = '>'
int distance_ir_get_analog_value_callback_threshold(DistanceIR *distance_ir, char *ret_option, uint16_t *ret_min, uint16_t *ret_max)

Returns the threshold as set by distance_ir_set_analog_value_callback_threshold().

The following defines are available for this function:

  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_OFF = 'x'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_OUTSIDE = 'o'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_INSIDE = 'i'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_SMALLER = '<'
  • DISTANCE_IR_THRESHOLD_OPTION_GREATER = '>'
int distance_ir_set_debounce_period(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint32_t debounce)

Sets the period in ms with which the threshold callbacks

are triggered, if the thresholds

keep being reached.

The default value is 100.

int distance_ir_get_debounce_period(DistanceIR *distance_ir, uint32_t *ret_debounce)

Returns the debounce period as set by distance_ir_set_debounce_period().

Callbacks

Callbacks can be registered to receive time critical or recurring data from the device. The registration is done with the distance_ir_register_callback() function. The parameters consist of the device object, the callback ID, the callback function and optional user data:

void my_callback(int p, void *user_data) {
    printf("parameter: %d\n", p);
}

distance_ir_register_callback(&distance_ir, DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_EXAMPLE, (void *)my_callback, NULL);

The available constants with corresponding callback function signatures are described below.

Note

Using callbacks for recurring events is always preferred compared to using getters. It will use less USB bandwidth and the latency will be a lot better, since there is no round trip time.

DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE
void callback(uint16_t distance, void *user_data)

This callback is triggered periodically with the period that is set by distance_ir_set_distance_callback_period(). The parameter is the distance of the sensor.

The DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE callback is only triggered if the distance has changed since the last triggering.

DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_ANALOG_VALUE
void callback(uint16_t value, void *user_data)

This callback is triggered periodically with the period that is set by distance_ir_set_analog_value_callback_period(). The parameter is the analog value of the sensor.

The DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_ANALOG_VALUE callback is only triggered if the analog value has changed since the last triggering.

DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_DISTANCE_REACHED
void callback(uint16_t distance, void *user_data)

This callback is triggered when the threshold as set by distance_ir_set_distance_callback_threshold() is reached. The parameter is the distance of the sensor.

If the threshold keeps being reached, the callback is triggered periodically with the period as set by distance_ir_set_debounce_period().

DISTANCE_IR_CALLBACK_ANALOG_VALUE_REACHED
void callback(uint16_t value, void *user_data)

This callback is triggered when the threshold as set by distance_ir_set_analog_value_callback_threshold() is reached. The parameter is the analog value of the sensor.

If the threshold keeps being reached, the callback is triggered periodically with the period as set by distance_ir_set_debounce_period().

Constants

DISTANCE_IR_DEVICE_IDENTIFIER

This constant is used to identify a Distance IR Bricklet.

The distance_ir_get_identity() function and the IPCON_CALLBACK_ENUMERATE callback of the IP Connection have a device_identifier parameter to specify the Brick's or Bricklet's type.

DISTANCE_IR_DEVICE_DISPLAY_NAME

This constant represents the human readable name of a Distance IR Bricklet.