PHP - IO-16 Bricklet

This is the description of the PHP API bindings for the IO-16 Bricklet. General information and technical specifications for the IO-16 Bricklet are summarized in its hardware description.

An installation guide for the PHP API bindings is part of their general description.

Examples

The example code below is Public Domain (CC0 1.0).

Input

Download (ExampleInput.php)

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<?php

require_once('Tinkerforge/IPConnection.php');
require_once('Tinkerforge/BrickletIO16.php');

use Tinkerforge\IPConnection;
use Tinkerforge\BrickletIO16;

const HOST = 'localhost';
const PORT = 4223;
const UID = 'XYZ'; // Change XYZ to the UID of your IO-16 Bricklet

$ipcon = new IPConnection(); // Create IP connection
$io = new BrickletIO16(UID, $ipcon); // Create device object

$ipcon->connect(HOST, PORT); // Connect to brickd
// Don't use device before ipcon is connected

// Get current value from port A as bitmask
$value_mask = $io->getPort('a');
echo "Value Mask (Port A): " . sprintf("%08b", $value_mask) . "\n";

echo "Press key to exit\n";
fgetc(fopen('php://stdin', 'r'));
$ipcon->disconnect();

?>

Output

Download (ExampleOutput.php)

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<?php

require_once('Tinkerforge/IPConnection.php');
require_once('Tinkerforge/BrickletIO16.php');

use Tinkerforge\IPConnection;
use Tinkerforge\BrickletIO16;

const HOST = 'localhost';
const PORT = 4223;
const UID = 'XYZ'; // Change XYZ to the UID of your IO-16 Bricklet

$ipcon = new IPConnection(); // Create IP connection
$io = new BrickletIO16(UID, $ipcon); // Create device object

$ipcon->connect(HOST, PORT); // Connect to brickd
// Don't use device before ipcon is connected

// Set pin 0 on port A to output low
$io->setPortConfiguration('a', 1 << 0, 'o', FALSE);

// Set pin 0 and 7 on port B to output high
$io->setPortConfiguration('b', (1 << 0) | (1 << 7), 'o', TRUE);

echo "Press key to exit\n";
fgetc(fopen('php://stdin', 'r'));
$ipcon->disconnect();

?>

Interrupt

Download (ExampleInterrupt.php)

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<?php

require_once('Tinkerforge/IPConnection.php');
require_once('Tinkerforge/BrickletIO16.php');

use Tinkerforge\IPConnection;
use Tinkerforge\BrickletIO16;

const HOST = 'localhost';
const PORT = 4223;
const UID = 'XYZ'; // Change XYZ to the UID of your IO-16 Bricklet

// Callback function for interrupt callback
function cb_interrupt($port, $interrupt_mask, $value_mask)
{
    echo "Port: $port\n";
    echo "Interrupt Mask: " . sprintf("%08b", $interrupt_mask) . "\n";
    echo "Value Mask: " . sprintf("%08b", $value_mask) . "\n";
    echo "\n";
}

$ipcon = new IPConnection(); // Create IP connection
$io = new BrickletIO16(UID, $ipcon); // Create device object

$ipcon->connect(HOST, PORT); // Connect to brickd
// Don't use device before ipcon is connected

// Register interrupt callback to function cb_interrupt
$io->registerCallback(BrickletIO16::CALLBACK_INTERRUPT, 'cb_interrupt');

// Enable interrupt on pin 2 of port A
$io->setPortInterrupt('a', 1 << 2);

echo "Press ctrl+c to exit\n";
$ipcon->dispatchCallbacks(-1); // Dispatch callbacks forever

?>

API

Functions that return multiple values return them in an associative array.

Basic Functions

class BrickletIO16(string $uid, IPConnection $ipcon)
Parameters:
  • $uid – Type: string
  • $ipcon – Type: IPConnection
Returns:
  • $io16 – Type: BrickletIO16

Creates an object with the unique device ID $uid:

<?php   $io16 = new BrickletIO16('YOUR_DEVICE_UID', $ipcon);   ?>

This object can then be used after the IP Connection is connected (see examples above).

void BrickletIO16::setPort(string $port, int $value_mask)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
  • $value_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]

Sets the output value (high or low) for a port ("a" or "b") with a bitmask (8bit). A 1 in the bitmask means high and a 0 in the bitmask means low.

For example: The value 15 or 0b00001111 will turn the pins 0-3 high and the pins 4-7 low for the specified port.

All running monoflop timers of the given port will be aborted if this function is called.

Note

This function does nothing for pins that are configured as input. Pull-up resistors can be switched on with setPortConfiguration().

int BrickletIO16::getPort(string $port)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
Returns:
  • $value_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]

Returns a bitmask of the values that are currently measured on the specified port. This function works if the pin is configured to input as well as if it is configured to output.

void BrickletIO16::setPortConfiguration(string $port, int $selection_mask, string $direction, bool $value)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
  • $selection_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • $direction – Type: string, Range: See constants, Default: 'i'
  • $value – Type: bool, Default: TRUE

Configures the value and direction of a specified port. Possible directions are 'i' and 'o' for input and output.

If the direction is configured as output, the value is either high or low (set as true or false).

If the direction is configured as input, the value is either pull-up or default (set as true or false).

For example:

  • ('a', 255, 'i', true) or ('a', 0b11111111, 'i', true) will set all pins of port A as input pull-up.
  • ('a', 128, 'i', false) or ('a', 0b10000000, 'i', false) will set pin 7 of port A as input default (floating if nothing is connected).
  • ('b', 3, 'o', false) or ('b', 0b00000011, 'o', false) will set pins 0 and 1 of port B as output low.
  • ('b', 4, 'o', true) or ('b', 0b00000100, 'o', true) will set pin 2 of port B as output high.

Running monoflop timers for the selected pins will be aborted if this function is called.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $direction:

  • BrickletIO16::DIRECTION_IN = 'i'
  • BrickletIO16::DIRECTION_OUT = 'o'
array BrickletIO16::getPortConfiguration(string $port)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
Return Array:
  • 'direction_mask' – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • 'value_mask' – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]

Returns a direction bitmask and a value bitmask for the specified port. A 1 in the direction bitmask means input and a 0 in the bitmask means output.

For example: A return value of (15, 51) or (0b00001111, 0b00110011) for direction and value means that:

  • pins 0 and 1 are configured as input pull-up,
  • pins 2 and 3 are configured as input default,
  • pins 4 and 5 are configured as output high
  • and pins 6 and 7 are configured as output low.
int BrickletIO16::getEdgeCount(int $pin, bool $reset_counter)
Parameters:
  • $pin – Type: int, Range: [0 to 1]
  • $reset_counter – Type: bool
Returns:
  • $count – Type: int, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]

Returns the current value of the edge counter for the selected pin on port A. You can configure the edges that are counted with setEdgeCountConfig().

If you set the reset counter to true, the count is set back to 0 directly after it is read.

New in version 2.0.3 (Plugin).

Advanced Functions

void BrickletIO16::setPortMonoflop(string $port, int $selection_mask, int $value_mask, int $time)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
  • $selection_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • $value_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • $time – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]

Configures a monoflop of the pins specified by the second parameter as 8 bit long bitmask. The specified pins must be configured for output. Non-output pins will be ignored.

The third parameter is a bitmask with the desired value of the specified output pins. A 1 in the bitmask means high and a 0 in the bitmask means low.

The forth parameter indicates the time that the pins should hold the value.

If this function is called with the parameters ('a', 9, 1, 1500) or ('a', 0b00001001, 0b00000001, 1500): Pin 0 will get high and pin 3 will get low on port 'a'. In 1.5s pin 0 will get low and pin 3 will get high again.

A monoflop can be used as a fail-safe mechanism. For example: Lets assume you have a RS485 bus and an IO-16 Bricklet connected to one of the slave stacks. You can now call this function every second, with a time parameter of two seconds and pin 0 set to high. Pin 0 will be high all the time. If now the RS485 connection is lost, then pin 0 will get low in at most two seconds.

array BrickletIO16::getPortMonoflop(string $port, int $pin)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
  • $pin – Type: int, Range: [0 to 7]
Return Array:
  • 'value' – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • 'time' – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]
  • 'time_remaining' – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]

Returns (for the given pin) the current value and the time as set by setPortMonoflop() as well as the remaining time until the value flips.

If the timer is not running currently, the remaining time will be returned as 0.

void BrickletIO16::setSelectedValues(string $port, int $selection_mask, int $value_mask)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
  • $selection_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • $value_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]

Sets the output value (high or low) for a port ("a" or "b" with a bitmask, according to the selection mask. The bitmask is 8 bit long and a 1 in the bitmask means high and a 0 in the bitmask means low.

For example: The parameters ('a', 192, 128) or ('a', 0b11000000, 0b10000000) will turn pin 7 high and pin 6 low on port A, pins 0-6 will remain untouched.

Running monoflop timers for the selected pins will be aborted if this function is called.

Note

This function does nothing for pins that are configured as input. Pull-up resistors can be switched on with setPortConfiguration().

void BrickletIO16::setEdgeCountConfig(int $pin, int $edge_type, int $debounce)
Parameters:
  • $pin – Type: int, Range: [0 to 1]
  • $edge_type – Type: int, Range: See constants, Default: 0
  • $debounce – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 255], Default: 100

Configures the edge counter for the selected pin of port A. Pins 0 and 1 are available for edge counting.

The edge type parameter configures if rising edges, falling edges or both are counted if the pin is configured for input. Possible edge types are:

  • 0 = rising
  • 1 = falling
  • 2 = both

Configuring an edge counter resets its value to 0.

If you don't know what any of this means, just leave it at default. The default configuration is very likely OK for you.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $edge_type:

  • BrickletIO16::EDGE_TYPE_RISING = 0
  • BrickletIO16::EDGE_TYPE_FALLING = 1
  • BrickletIO16::EDGE_TYPE_BOTH = 2

New in version 2.0.3 (Plugin).

array BrickletIO16::getEdgeCountConfig(int $pin)
Parameters:
  • $pin – Type: int, Range: [0 to 1]
Return Array:
  • 'edge_type' – Type: int, Range: See constants, Default: 0
  • 'debounce' – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 255], Default: 100

Returns the edge type and debounce time for the selected pin of port A as set by setEdgeCountConfig().

The following constants are available for this function:

For $edge_type:

  • BrickletIO16::EDGE_TYPE_RISING = 0
  • BrickletIO16::EDGE_TYPE_FALLING = 1
  • BrickletIO16::EDGE_TYPE_BOTH = 2

New in version 2.0.3 (Plugin).

array BrickletIO16::getIdentity()
Return Array:
  • 'uid' – Type: string, Length: up to 8
  • 'connected_uid' – Type: string, Length: up to 8
  • 'position' – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'h', 'i', 'z']
  • 'hardware_version' – Type: array(int, ...), Length: 3
    • 0: $major – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
    • 1: $minor – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
    • 2: $revision – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • 'firmware_version' – Type: array(int, ...), Length: 3
    • 0: $major – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
    • 1: $minor – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
    • 2: $revision – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • 'device_identifier' – Type: int, Range: [0 to 216 - 1]

Returns the UID, the UID where the Bricklet is connected to, the position, the hardware and firmware version as well as the device identifier.

The position can be 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g' or 'h' (Bricklet Port). The Raspberry Pi HAT (Zero) Brick is always at position 'i' and the Bricklet connected to an Isolator Bricklet is always as position 'z'.

The device identifier numbers can be found here. There is also a constant for the device identifier of this Bricklet.

Callback Configuration Functions

void BrickletIO16::registerCallback(int $callback_id, callable $callback, mixed $user_data=NULL)
Parameters:
  • $callback_id – Type: int
  • $callback – Type: callable
  • $user_data – Type: mixed

Registers the given $function with the given $callback_id. The optional $user_data will be passed as the last parameter to the function.

The available callback IDs with corresponding function signatures are listed below.

void BrickletIO16::setDebouncePeriod(int $debounce)
Parameters:
  • $debounce – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1], Default: 100

Sets the debounce period of the CALLBACK_INTERRUPT callback.

For example: If you set this value to 100, you will get the interrupt maximal every 100ms. This is necessary if something that bounces is connected to the IO-16 Bricklet, such as a button.

int BrickletIO16::getDebouncePeriod()
Returns:
  • $debounce – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1], Default: 100

Returns the debounce period as set by setDebouncePeriod().

void BrickletIO16::setPortInterrupt(string $port, int $interrupt_mask)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
  • $interrupt_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]

Sets the pins on which an interrupt is activated with a bitmask. Interrupts are triggered on changes of the voltage level of the pin, i.e. changes from high to low and low to high.

For example: ('a', 129) or ('a', 0b10000001) will enable the interrupt for pins 0 and 7 of port a.

The interrupt is delivered with the CALLBACK_INTERRUPT callback.

int BrickletIO16::getPortInterrupt(string $port)
Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
Returns:
  • $interrupt_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]

Returns the interrupt bitmask for the specified port as set by setPortInterrupt().

Callbacks

Callbacks can be registered to receive time critical or recurring data from the device. The registration is done with the registerCallback() function of the device object. The first parameter is the callback ID and the second parameter the callback function:

<?php

function myCallback($param)
{
    echo $param . "\n";
}

$io16->registerCallback(BrickletIO16::CALLBACK_EXAMPLE, 'myCallback');

?>

The available constants with corresponding function signatures are described below.

Note

Using callbacks for recurring events is always preferred compared to using getters. It will use less USB bandwidth and the latency will be a lot better, since there is no round trip time.

int BrickletIO16::CALLBACK_INTERRUPT
<?php   void callback(string $port, int $interrupt_mask, int $value_mask [, mixed $user_data])   ?>
Callback Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
  • $interrupt_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • $value_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • $user_data – Type: mixed

This callback is triggered whenever a change of the voltage level is detected on pins where the interrupt was activated with setPortInterrupt().

The values are the port, a bitmask that specifies which interrupts occurred and the current value bitmask of the port.

For example:

  • ('a', 1, 1) or ('a', 0b00000001, 0b00000001) means that on port A an interrupt on pin 0 occurred and currently pin 0 is high and pins 1-7 are low.
  • ('b', 129, 254) or ('b', 0b10000001, 0b11111110) means that on port B interrupts on pins 0 and 7 occurred and currently pin 0 is low and pins 1-7 are high.
int BrickletIO16::CALLBACK_MONOFLOP_DONE
<?php   void callback(string $port, int $selection_mask, int $value_mask [, mixed $user_data])   ?>
Callback Parameters:
  • $port – Type: string, Range: ['a' to 'b']
  • $selection_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • $value_mask – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
  • $user_data – Type: mixed

This callback is triggered whenever a monoflop timer reaches 0. The parameters contain the port, the involved pins and the current value of the pins (the value after the monoflop).

Virtual Functions

Virtual functions don't communicate with the device itself, but operate only on the API bindings device object. They can be called without the corresponding IP Connection object being connected.

array BrickletIO16::getAPIVersion()
Return Array:
  • $api_version – Type: array(int, ...), Length: 3
    • 0: $major – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
    • 1: $minor – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]
    • 2: $revision – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]

Returns the version of the API definition implemented by this API bindings. This is neither the release version of this API bindings nor does it tell you anything about the represented Brick or Bricklet.

bool BrickletIO16::getResponseExpected(int $function_id)
Parameters:
  • $function_id – Type: int, Range: See constants
Returns:
  • $response_expected – Type: bool

Returns the response expected flag for the function specified by the function ID parameter. It is true if the function is expected to send a response, false otherwise.

For getter functions this is enabled by default and cannot be disabled, because those functions will always send a response. For callback configuration functions it is enabled by default too, but can be disabled by setResponseExpected(). For setter functions it is disabled by default and can be enabled.

Enabling the response expected flag for a setter function allows to detect timeouts and other error conditions calls of this setter as well. The device will then send a response for this purpose. If this flag is disabled for a setter function then no response is send and errors are silently ignored, because they cannot be detected.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $function_id:

  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_PORT = 1
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_PORT_CONFIGURATION = 3
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_DEBOUNCE_PERIOD = 5
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_PORT_INTERRUPT = 7
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_PORT_MONOFLOP = 10
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_SELECTED_VALUES = 13
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_EDGE_COUNT_CONFIG = 15
void BrickletIO16::setResponseExpected(int $function_id, bool $response_expected)
Parameters:
  • $function_id – Type: int, Range: See constants
  • $response_expected – Type: bool

Changes the response expected flag of the function specified by the function ID parameter. This flag can only be changed for setter (default value: false) and callback configuration functions (default value: true). For getter functions it is always enabled.

Enabling the response expected flag for a setter function allows to detect timeouts and other error conditions calls of this setter as well. The device will then send a response for this purpose. If this flag is disabled for a setter function then no response is send and errors are silently ignored, because they cannot be detected.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $function_id:

  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_PORT = 1
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_PORT_CONFIGURATION = 3
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_DEBOUNCE_PERIOD = 5
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_PORT_INTERRUPT = 7
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_PORT_MONOFLOP = 10
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_SELECTED_VALUES = 13
  • BrickletIO16::FUNCTION_SET_EDGE_COUNT_CONFIG = 15
void BrickletIO16::setResponseExpectedAll(bool $response_expected)
Parameters:
  • $response_expected – Type: bool

Changes the response expected flag for all setter and callback configuration functions of this device at once.

Constants

int BrickletIO16::DEVICE_IDENTIFIER

This constant is used to identify a IO-16 Bricklet.

The getIdentity() function and the IPConnection::CALLBACK_ENUMERATE callback of the IP Connection have a deviceIdentifier parameter to specify the Brick's or Bricklet's type.

string BrickletIO16::DEVICE_DISPLAY_NAME

This constant represents the human readable name of a IO-16 Bricklet.