Perl - Compass Bricklet

This is the description of the Perl API bindings for the Compass Bricklet. General information and technical specifications for the Compass Bricklet are summarized in its hardware description.

An installation guide for the Perl API bindings is part of their general description.

Examples

The example code below is Public Domain (CC0 1.0).

Simple

Download (example_simple.pl)

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#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use Tinkerforge::IPConnection;
use Tinkerforge::BrickletCompass;

use constant HOST => 'localhost';
use constant PORT => 4223;
use constant UID => 'XYZ'; # Change XYZ to the UID of your Compass Bricklet

my $ipcon = Tinkerforge::IPConnection->new(); # Create IP connection
my $c = Tinkerforge::BrickletCompass->new(&UID, $ipcon); # Create device object

$ipcon->connect(&HOST, &PORT); # Connect to brickd
# Don't use device before ipcon is connected

# Get current heading
my $heading = $c->get_heading();
print "Heading: " . $heading/10.0 . " °\n";

print "Press key to exit\n";
<STDIN>;
$ipcon->disconnect();

Callback

Download (example_callback.pl)

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#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use Tinkerforge::IPConnection;
use Tinkerforge::BrickletCompass;

use constant HOST => 'localhost';
use constant PORT => 4223;
use constant UID => 'XYZ'; # Change XYZ to the UID of your Compass Bricklet

# Callback subroutine for heading callback
sub cb_heading
{
    my ($heading) = @_;

    print "Heading: " . $heading/10.0 . " °\n";
}

my $ipcon = Tinkerforge::IPConnection->new(); # Create IP connection
my $c = Tinkerforge::BrickletCompass->new(&UID, $ipcon); # Create device object

$ipcon->connect(&HOST, &PORT); # Connect to brickd
# Don't use device before ipcon is connected

# Register heading callback to subroutine cb_heading
$c->register_callback($c->CALLBACK_HEADING, 'cb_heading');

# Set period for heading callback to 0.1s (100ms) without a threshold
$c->set_heading_callback_configuration(100, 0, 'x', 0, 0);

print "Press key to exit\n";
<STDIN>;
$ipcon->disconnect();

API

Generally, every subroutine of the Perl bindings can report an error as Tinkerforge::Error object via croak(). The object has a get_code() and a get_message() subroutine. There are different error code:

  • Error->ALREADY_CONNECTED = 11
  • Error->NOT_CONNECTED = 12
  • Error->CONNECT_FAILED = 13
  • Error->INVALID_FUNCTION_ID = 21
  • Error->TIMEOUT = 31
  • Error->INVALID_PARAMETER = 41
  • Error->FUNCTION_NOT_SUPPORTED = 42
  • Error->UNKNOWN_ERROR = 43
  • Error->STREAM_OUT_OF_SYNC = 51
  • Error->INVALID_UID = 61
  • Error->NON_ASCII_CHAR_IN_SECRET = 71

All methods listed below are thread-safe.

Basic Functions

BrickletCompass->new($uid, $ipcon)
Parameters:
  • $uid – Type: string
  • $ipcon – Type: IPConnection
Returns:
  • $compass – Type: BrickletCompass

Creates an object with the unique device ID $uid:

$compass = BrickletCompass->new("YOUR_DEVICE_UID", $ipcon);

This object can then be used after the IP Connection is connected (see examples above).

BrickletCompass->get_heading()
Returns:
  • $heading – Type: int, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]

Returns the heading in 1/10 degree (north = 0 degree, east = 90 degree).

Alternatively you can use get_magnetic_flux_density() and calculate the heading with heading = atan2(y, x) * 180 / PI.

If you want to get the value periodically, it is recommended to use the CALLBACK_HEADING callback. You can set the callback configuration with set_heading_callback_configuration().

BrickletCompass->get_magnetic_flux_density()
Return Array:
  • 0: $x – Type: int, Range: [-231 to 231 - 1]
  • 1: $y – Type: int, Range: [-231 to 231 - 1]
  • 2: $z – Type: int, Range: [-231 to 231 - 1]

Returns the magnetic flux density (magnetic induction) for all three axis in 1/10 mG (milli Gauss).

If you want to get the value periodically, it is recommended to use the CALLBACK_MAGNETIC_FLUX_DENSITY callback. You can set the callback configuration with set_magnetic_flux_density_callback_configuration().

BrickletCompass->set_configuration($data_rate, $background_calibration)
Parameters:
  • $data_rate – Type: int, Range: See constants
  • $background_calibration – Type: bool
Returns:
  • undef

Configures the data rate and background calibration.

  • Data Rate: Sets the data rate that is used by the magnetometer. The lower the data rate, the lower is the noise on the data.
  • Background Calibration: Set to true to enable the background calibration and false to turn it off. If the background calibration is enabled the sensing polarity is flipped once per second to automatically calculate and remove offset that is caused by temperature changes. This polarity flipping takes about 20ms. This means that once a second you will not get new data for a period of 20ms. We highly recommend that you keep the background calibration enabled and only disable it if the 20ms off-time is a problem in your application.

Default values: Data rate of 100Hz and background calibration enabled.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $data_rate:

  • BrickletCompass->DATA_RATE_100HZ = 0
  • BrickletCompass->DATA_RATE_200HZ = 1
  • BrickletCompass->DATA_RATE_400HZ = 2
  • BrickletCompass->DATA_RATE_600HZ = 3
BrickletCompass->get_configuration()
Return Array:
  • 0: $data_rate – Type: int, Range: See constants
  • 1: $background_calibration – Type: bool

Returns the configuration as set by set_configuration().

The following constants are available for this function:

For $data_rate:

  • BrickletCompass->DATA_RATE_100HZ = 0
  • BrickletCompass->DATA_RATE_200HZ = 1
  • BrickletCompass->DATA_RATE_400HZ = 2
  • BrickletCompass->DATA_RATE_600HZ = 3

Advanced Functions

BrickletCompass->set_calibration(@offset, @gain)
Parameters:
  • @offset – Type: [int, ...], Length: 3, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]
  • @gain – Type: [int, ...], Length: 3, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]
Returns:
  • undef

Sets offset and gain for each of the three axes.

The Bricklet is factory calibrated. If you want to re-calibrate the Bricklet we recommend that you do the calibration through Brick Viewer.

The calibration is saved in non-volatile memory and only has to be done once.

BrickletCompass->get_calibration()
Return Array:
  • 0: @offset – Type: [int, ...], Length: 3, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]
  • 1: @gain – Type: [int, ...], Length: 3, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]

Returns the calibration parameters as set by set_calibration().

BrickletCompass->get_api_version()
Returns:
  • @api_version – Type: [int, ...], Length: 3, Range: [0 to 255]

Returns the version of the API definition (major, minor, revision) implemented by this API bindings. This is neither the release version of this API bindings nor does it tell you anything about the represented Brick or Bricklet.

BrickletCompass->get_response_expected($function_id)
Parameters:
  • $function_id – Type: int, Range: See constants
Returns:
  • $response_expected – Type: bool

Returns the response expected flag for the function specified by the function ID parameter. It is true if the function is expected to send a response, false otherwise.

For getter functions this is enabled by default and cannot be disabled, because those functions will always send a response. For callback configuration functions it is enabled by default too, but can be disabled by set_response_expected(). For setter functions it is disabled by default and can be enabled.

Enabling the response expected flag for a setter function allows to detect timeouts and other error conditions calls of this setter as well. The device will then send a response for this purpose. If this flag is disabled for a setter function then no response is send and errors are silently ignored, because they cannot be detected.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $function_id:

  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_HEADING_CALLBACK_CONFIGURATION = 2
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_MAGNETIC_FLUX_DENSITY_CALLBACK_CONFIGURATION = 6
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_CONFIGURATION = 9
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_CALIBRATION = 11
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_WRITE_FIRMWARE_POINTER = 237
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_STATUS_LED_CONFIG = 239
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_RESET = 243
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_WRITE_UID = 248
BrickletCompass->set_response_expected($function_id, $response_expected)
Parameters:
  • $function_id – Type: int, Range: See constants
  • $response_expected – Type: bool
Returns:
  • undef

Changes the response expected flag of the function specified by the function ID parameter. This flag can only be changed for setter (default value: false) and callback configuration functions (default value: true). For getter functions it is always enabled.

Enabling the response expected flag for a setter function allows to detect timeouts and other error conditions calls of this setter as well. The device will then send a response for this purpose. If this flag is disabled for a setter function then no response is send and errors are silently ignored, because they cannot be detected.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $function_id:

  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_HEADING_CALLBACK_CONFIGURATION = 2
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_MAGNETIC_FLUX_DENSITY_CALLBACK_CONFIGURATION = 6
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_CONFIGURATION = 9
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_CALIBRATION = 11
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_WRITE_FIRMWARE_POINTER = 237
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_SET_STATUS_LED_CONFIG = 239
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_RESET = 243
  • BrickletCompass->FUNCTION_WRITE_UID = 248
BrickletCompass->set_response_expected_all($response_expected)
Parameters:
  • $response_expected – Type: bool
Returns:
  • undef

Changes the response expected flag for all setter and callback configuration functions of this device at once.

BrickletCompass->get_spitfp_error_count()
Return Array:
  • 0: $error_count_ack_checksum – Type: int, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]
  • 1: $error_count_message_checksum – Type: int, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]
  • 2: $error_count_frame – Type: int, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]
  • 3: $error_count_overflow – Type: int, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]

Returns the error count for the communication between Brick and Bricklet.

The errors are divided into

  • ACK checksum errors,
  • message checksum errors,
  • framing errors and
  • overflow errors.

The errors counts are for errors that occur on the Bricklet side. All Bricks have a similar function that returns the errors on the Brick side.

BrickletCompass->set_bootloader_mode($mode)
Parameters:
  • $mode – Type: int, Range: See constants
Returns:
  • $status – Type: int, Range: See constants

Sets the bootloader mode and returns the status after the requested mode change was instigated.

You can change from bootloader mode to firmware mode and vice versa. A change from bootloader mode to firmware mode will only take place if the entry function, device identifier and CRC are present and correct.

This function is used by Brick Viewer during flashing. It should not be necessary to call it in a normal user program.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $mode:

  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_BOOTLOADER = 0
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_FIRMWARE = 1
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_BOOTLOADER_WAIT_FOR_REBOOT = 2
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_FIRMWARE_WAIT_FOR_REBOOT = 3
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_FIRMWARE_WAIT_FOR_ERASE_AND_REBOOT = 4

For $status:

  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_STATUS_OK = 0
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_STATUS_INVALID_MODE = 1
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_STATUS_NO_CHANGE = 2
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_STATUS_ENTRY_FUNCTION_NOT_PRESENT = 3
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_STATUS_DEVICE_IDENTIFIER_INCORRECT = 4
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_STATUS_CRC_MISMATCH = 5
BrickletCompass->get_bootloader_mode()
Returns:
  • $mode – Type: int, Range: See constants

Returns the current bootloader mode, see set_bootloader_mode().

The following constants are available for this function:

For $mode:

  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_BOOTLOADER = 0
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_FIRMWARE = 1
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_BOOTLOADER_WAIT_FOR_REBOOT = 2
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_FIRMWARE_WAIT_FOR_REBOOT = 3
  • BrickletCompass->BOOTLOADER_MODE_FIRMWARE_WAIT_FOR_ERASE_AND_REBOOT = 4
BrickletCompass->set_write_firmware_pointer($pointer)
Parameters:
  • $pointer – Type: int, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]
Returns:
  • undef

Sets the firmware pointer for write_firmware(). The pointer has to be increased by chunks of size 64. The data is written to flash every 4 chunks (which equals to one page of size 256).

This function is used by Brick Viewer during flashing. It should not be necessary to call it in a normal user program.

BrickletCompass->write_firmware(@data)
Parameters:
  • @data – Type: [int, ...], Length: 64, Range: [0 to 255]
Returns:
  • $status – Type: int, Range: [0 to 255]

Writes 64 Bytes of firmware at the position as written by set_write_firmware_pointer() before. The firmware is written to flash every 4 chunks.

You can only write firmware in bootloader mode.

This function is used by Brick Viewer during flashing. It should not be necessary to call it in a normal user program.

BrickletCompass->set_status_led_config($config)
Parameters:
  • $config – Type: int, Range: See constants
Returns:
  • undef

Sets the status LED configuration. By default the LED shows communication traffic between Brick and Bricklet, it flickers once for every 10 received data packets.

You can also turn the LED permanently on/off or show a heartbeat.

If the Bricklet is in bootloader mode, the LED is will show heartbeat by default.

The following constants are available for this function:

For $config:

  • BrickletCompass->STATUS_LED_CONFIG_OFF = 0
  • BrickletCompass->STATUS_LED_CONFIG_ON = 1
  • BrickletCompass->STATUS_LED_CONFIG_SHOW_HEARTBEAT = 2
  • BrickletCompass->STATUS_LED_CONFIG_SHOW_STATUS = 3
BrickletCompass->get_status_led_config()
Returns:
  • $config – Type: int, Range: See constants

Returns the configuration as set by set_status_led_config()

The following constants are available for this function:

For $config:

  • BrickletCompass->STATUS_LED_CONFIG_OFF = 0
  • BrickletCompass->STATUS_LED_CONFIG_ON = 1
  • BrickletCompass->STATUS_LED_CONFIG_SHOW_HEARTBEAT = 2
  • BrickletCompass->STATUS_LED_CONFIG_SHOW_STATUS = 3
BrickletCompass->get_chip_temperature()
Returns:
  • $temperature – Type: int, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]

Returns the temperature in °C as measured inside the microcontroller. The value returned is not the ambient temperature!

The temperature is only proportional to the real temperature and it has bad accuracy. Practically it is only useful as an indicator for temperature changes.

BrickletCompass->reset()
Returns:
  • undef

Calling this function will reset the Bricklet. All configurations will be lost.

After a reset you have to create new device objects, calling functions on the existing ones will result in undefined behavior!

BrickletCompass->write_uid($uid)
Parameters:
  • $uid – Type: int, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]
Returns:
  • undef

Writes a new UID into flash. If you want to set a new UID you have to decode the Base58 encoded UID string into an integer first.

We recommend that you use Brick Viewer to change the UID.

BrickletCompass->read_uid()
Returns:
  • $uid – Type: int, Range: [0 to 232 - 1]

Returns the current UID as an integer. Encode as Base58 to get the usual string version.

BrickletCompass->get_identity()
Return Array:
  • 0: $uid – Type: string, Length: up to 8
  • 1: $connected_uid – Type: string, Length: up to 8
  • 2: $position – Type: char
  • 3: @hardware_version – Type: [int, ...], Length: 3, Range: [0 to 255]
  • 4: @firmware_version – Type: [int, ...], Length: 3, Range: [0 to 255]
  • 5: $device_identifier – Type: int, Range: [0 to 216 - 1]

Returns the UID, the UID where the Bricklet is connected to, the position, the hardware and firmware version as well as the device identifier.

The position can be 'a', 'b', 'c' or 'd'.

The device identifier numbers can be found here. There is also a constant for the device identifier of this Bricklet.

Callback Configuration Functions

BrickletCompass->register_callback($callback_id, $function)
Parameters:
  • $callback_id – Type: int
  • $function – Type: string
Returns:
  • undef

Registers the given $function name with the given $callback_id.

The available callback IDs with corresponding function signatures are listed below.

BrickletCompass->set_heading_callback_configuration($period, $value_has_to_change, $option, $min, $max)
Parameters:
  • $period – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1], Default: 0
  • $value_has_to_change – Type: bool, Default: 0
  • $option – Type: char, Range: See constants, Default: 'x'
  • $min – Type: int, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]
  • $max – Type: int, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]
Returns:
  • undef

The period is the period with which the CALLBACK_HEADING callback is triggered periodically. A value of 0 turns the callback off.

If the value has to change-parameter is set to true, the callback is only triggered after the value has changed. If the value didn't change within the period, the callback is triggered immediately on change.

If it is set to false, the callback is continuously triggered with the period, independent of the value.

It is furthermore possible to constrain the callback with thresholds.

The option-parameter together with min/max sets a threshold for the CALLBACK_HEADING callback.

The following options are possible:

Option Description
'x' Threshold is turned off
'o' Threshold is triggered when the value is outside the min and max values
'i' Threshold is triggered when the value is inside or equal to the min and max values
'<' Threshold is triggered when the value is smaller than the min value (max is ignored)
'>' Threshold is triggered when the value is greater than the min value (max is ignored)

If the option is set to 'x' (threshold turned off) the callback is triggered with the fixed period.

The default value is (0, false, 'x', 0, 0).

The following constants are available for this function:

For $option:

  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_OFF = 'x'
  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_OUTSIDE = 'o'
  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_INSIDE = 'i'
  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_SMALLER = '<'
  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_GREATER = '>'
BrickletCompass->get_heading_callback_configuration()
Return Array:
  • 0: $period – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1], Default: 0
  • 1: $value_has_to_change – Type: bool, Default: 0
  • 2: $option – Type: char, Range: See constants, Default: 'x'
  • 3: $min – Type: int, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]
  • 4: $max – Type: int, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]

Returns the callback configuration as set by set_heading_callback_configuration().

The following constants are available for this function:

For $option:

  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_OFF = 'x'
  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_OUTSIDE = 'o'
  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_INSIDE = 'i'
  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_SMALLER = '<'
  • BrickletCompass->THRESHOLD_OPTION_GREATER = '>'
BrickletCompass->set_magnetic_flux_density_callback_configuration($period, $value_has_to_change)
Parameters:
  • $period – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1], Default: 0
  • $value_has_to_change – Type: bool, Default: 0
Returns:
  • undef

The period is the period with which the CALLBACK_MAGNETIC_FLUX_DENSITY callback is triggered periodically. A value of 0 turns the callback off.

If the value has to change-parameter is set to true, the callback is only triggered after the value has changed. If the value didn't change within the period, the callback is triggered immediately on change.

If it is set to false, the callback is continuously triggered with the period, independent of the value.

BrickletCompass->get_magnetic_flux_density_callback_configuration()
Return Array:
  • 0: $period – Type: int, Unit: 1 ms, Range: [0 to 232 - 1], Default: 0
  • 1: $value_has_to_change – Type: bool, Default: 0

Returns the callback configuration as set by set_magnetic_flux_density_callback_configuration().

Callbacks

Callbacks can be registered to receive time critical or recurring data from the device. The registration is done with the register_callback() function of the device object. The first parameter is the callback ID and the second parameter the callback function name:

sub my_callback
{
    print "@_[0]";
}

$compass->register_callback(BrickletCompass->CALLBACK_EXAMPLE, 'my_callback')

The callback function will be called from an internal thread of the IP Connection. In contrast to many other programming languages, variables are not automatically shared between threads in Perl. If you want to share a global variable between a callback function and the rest for your program it has to be marked as :shared. See the documentation of the threads::shared Perl module for more details.

The available constants with inherent number and type of parameters are described below.

Note

Using callbacks for recurring events is always preferred compared to using getters. It will use less USB bandwidth and the latency will be a lot better, since there is no round trip time.

BrickletCompass->CALLBACK_HEADING
Callback Parameters:
  • $heading – Type: int, Range: [-215 to 215 - 1]

This callback is triggered periodically according to the configuration set by set_heading_callback_configuration().

The parameter is the same as get_heading().

BrickletCompass->CALLBACK_MAGNETIC_FLUX_DENSITY
Callback Parameters:
  • $x – Type: int, Range: [-231 to 231 - 1]
  • $y – Type: int, Range: [-231 to 231 - 1]
  • $z – Type: int, Range: [-231 to 231 - 1]

This callback is triggered periodically according to the configuration set by set_magnetic_flux_density_callback_configuration().

The parameters are the same as get_magnetic_flux_density().

Constants

BrickletCompass->DEVICE_IDENTIFIER

This constant is used to identify a Compass Bricklet.

The get_identity() function and the IPConnection->CALLBACK_ENUMERATE callback of the IP Connection have a device_identifier parameter to specify the Brick's or Bricklet's type.

BrickletCompass->DEVICE_DISPLAY_NAME

This constant represents the human readable name of a Compass Bricklet.