Perl - OLED 64x48 Bricklet

This is the description of the Perl API bindings for the OLED 64x48 Bricklet. General information and technical specifications for the OLED 64x48 Bricklet are summarized in its hardware description.

An installation guide for the Perl API bindings is part of their general description.

Examples

The example code below is Public Domain (CC0 1.0).

Hello World

Download (example_hello_world.pl)

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#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use Tinkerforge::IPConnection;
use Tinkerforge::BrickletOLED64x48;

use constant HOST => 'localhost';
use constant PORT => 4223;
use constant UID => 'XYZ'; # Change XYZ to the UID of your OLED 64x48 Bricklet

my $ipcon = Tinkerforge::IPConnection->new(); # Create IP connection
my $oled = Tinkerforge::BrickletOLED64x48->new(&UID, $ipcon); # Create device object

$ipcon->connect(&HOST, &PORT); # Connect to brickd
# Don't use device before ipcon is connected

# Clear display
$oled->clear_display();

# Write "Hello World" starting from upper left corner of the screen
$oled->write_line(0, 0, "Hello World");

print "Press key to exit\n";
<STDIN>;
$ipcon->disconnect();

Pixel Matrix

Download (example_pixel_matrix.pl)

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#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use Tinkerforge::IPConnection;
use Tinkerforge::BrickletOLED64x48;

use constant HOST => 'localhost';
use constant PORT => 4223;
use constant UID => 'XYZ'; # Change XYZ to the UID of your OLED 64x48 Bricklet
use constant WIDTH => 64;
use constant HEIGHT => 48;

my $ipcon = Tinkerforge::IPConnection->new(); # Create IP connection
my $oled = Tinkerforge::BrickletOLED64x48->new(&UID, $ipcon); # Create device object

sub draw_matrix
{
    my ($oled, $pixels_ref) = @_;
    my @pixels = @{$pixels_ref};
    my @pages = ();

    foreach my $row (0..&HEIGHT / 8 - 1) {
        $pages[$row] = ();

        foreach my $column (0..&WIDTH - 1) {
            $pages[$row][$column] = 0;

            foreach my $bit (0..7) {
                if ($pixels[($row * 8) + $bit][$column]) {
                    $pages[$row][$column] |= 1 << $bit;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    $oled->new_window(0, &WIDTH - 1, 0, &HEIGHT / 8 - 1);

    foreach my $row (0..&HEIGHT / 8 - 1) {
        $oled->write($pages[$row]);
    }
}

$ipcon->connect(&HOST, &PORT); # Connect to brickd
# Don't use device before ipcon is connected

# Clear display
$oled->clear_display();

# Draw checkerboard pattern
my @pixels = ();

foreach my $row (0..&HEIGHT - 1) {
    $pixels[$row] = ();

    foreach my $column (0..&WIDTH - 1) {
        $pixels[$row][$column] = (($row / 8) % 2) == (($column / 8) % 2);
    }
}

draw_matrix($oled, \@pixels);

print "Press key to exit\n";
<STDIN>;
$ipcon->disconnect();

Scribble

Download (example_scribble.pl)

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#!/usr/bin/perl

use strict;
use Math::Trig;
use Term::ReadKey;
use GD;
use Tinkerforge::IPConnection;
use Tinkerforge::BrickletOLED64x48;

use constant HOST => 'localhost';
use constant PORT => 4223;
use constant UID => 'XYZ'; # Change to your UID
use constant WIDTH => 64;
use constant HEIGHT => 48;

my $ipcon = Tinkerforge::IPConnection->new(); # Create IP connection
my $oled = Tinkerforge::BrickletOLED64x48->new(&UID, $ipcon); # Create device object

sub draw_image
{
    my ($oled, $image) = @_;
    my @pages = ();

    foreach my $row (0..&HEIGHT / 8 - 1) {
        $pages[$row] = ();

        foreach my $column (0..&WIDTH - 1) {
            $pages[$row][$column] = 0;

            foreach my $bit (0..7) {
                my $index = $image->getPixel($column, ($row * 8) + $bit);
                my @rgb = $image->rgb($index);

                if ($rgb[0] > 0) {
                    $pages[$row][$column] |= 1 << $bit;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    $oled->new_window(0, &WIDTH - 1, 0, &HEIGHT / 8 - 1);

    foreach my $row (0..&HEIGHT / 8 - 1) {
        $oled->write($pages[$row]);
    }
}

$ipcon->connect(&HOST, &PORT); # Connect to brickd
# Don't use device before ipcon is connected

# Clear display
$oled->clear_display();

# Draw rotating line
my $image = new GD::Image(&WIDTH, &HEIGHT);
my $black = $image->colorAllocate(0, 0, 0);
my $white = $image->colorAllocate(255, 255, 255);
my $origin_x = &WIDTH / 2;
my $origin_y = &HEIGHT / 2;
my $length = &HEIGHT / 2 - 2;
my $angle = 0;

print "Press key to exit\n";
ReadMode(4);

while (!defined(ReadKey(-1))) {
    my $radians = pi * $angle / 180.0;
    my $x = int($origin_x + $length * cos($radians));
    my $y = int($origin_y + $length * sin($radians));

    $image->filledRectangle(0, 0, &WIDTH, &HEIGHT, $black);
    $image->line($origin_x, $origin_y, $x, $y, $white);

    draw_image($oled, $image);
    sleep 0.025;

    $angle++;
}

ReadMode(0);
$ipcon->disconnect();

API

Generally, every subroutine of the Perl bindings can report an error as Tinkerforge::Error object via croak(). The object has a get_code() and a get_message() subroutine. There are different error code:

  • Error->ALREADY_CONNECTED = 11
  • Error->NOT_CONNECTED = 12
  • Error->CONNECT_FAILED = 13
  • Error->INVALID_FUNCTION_ID = 21
  • Error->TIMEOUT = 31
  • Error->INVALID_PARAMETER = 41
  • Error->FUNCTION_NOT_SUPPORTED = 42
  • Error->UNKNOWN_ERROR = 43

All methods listed below are thread-safe.

Basic Functions

BrickletOLED64x48->new($uid, $ipcon)
Parameters:
  • $uid -- string
  • $ipcon -- IPConnection
Return type:

BrickletOLED64x48

Creates an object with the unique device ID $uid:

$oled_64x48 = BrickletOLED64x48->new("YOUR_DEVICE_UID", $ipcon);

This object can then be used after the IP Connection is connected (see examples above).

BrickletOLED64x48->write(@data)
Parameters:@data -- [int, int, ..61x.., int]
Return type:undef

Appends 64 byte of data to the window as set by new_window().

Each row has a height of 8 pixels which corresponds to one byte of data.

Example: if you call new_window() with column from 0 to 63 and row from 0 to 5 (the whole display) each call of write() (red arrow) will write one row.

Display pixel order

The LSB (D0) of each data byte is at the top and the MSB (D7) is at the bottom of the row.

The next call of write() will write the second row and so on. To fill the whole display you need to call write() 6 times.

BrickletOLED64x48->new_window($column_from, $column_to, $row_from, $row_to)
Parameters:
  • $column_from -- int
  • $column_to -- int
  • $row_from -- int
  • $row_to -- int
Return type:

undef

Sets the window in which you can write with write(). One row has a height of 8 pixels.

The columns have a range of 0 to 63 and the rows have a range of 0 to 5.

BrickletOLED64x48->clear_display()
Return type:undef

Clears the current content of the window as set by new_window().

BrickletOLED64x48->write_line($line, $position, $text)
Parameters:
  • $line -- int
  • $position -- int
  • $text -- string
Return type:

undef

Writes text to a specific line (0 to 5) with a specific position (0 to 12). The text can have a maximum of 13 characters.

For example: (1, 4, "Hello") will write Hello in the middle of the second line of the display.

You can draw to the display with write() and then add text to it afterwards.

The display uses a special 5x7 pixel charset. You can view the characters of the charset in Brick Viewer.

Advanced Functions

BrickletOLED64x48->set_display_configuration($contrast, $invert)
Parameters:
  • $contrast -- int
  • $invert -- bool
Return type:

undef

Sets the configuration of the display.

You can set a contrast value from 0 to 255 and you can invert the color (black/white) of the display.

The default values are contrast 143 and inverting off.

BrickletOLED64x48->get_display_configuration()
Return type:[int, bool]

Returns the configuration as set by set_display_configuration().

The returned array contains the elements contrast and invert.

BrickletOLED64x48->get_api_version()
Return type:[int, int, int]

Returns the version of the API definition (major, minor, revision) implemented by this API bindings. This is neither the release version of this API bindings nor does it tell you anything about the represented Brick or Bricklet.

BrickletOLED64x48->get_response_expected($function_id)
Parameters:$function_id -- int
Return type:bool

Returns the response expected flag for the function specified by the function ID parameter. It is true if the function is expected to send a response, false otherwise.

For getter functions this is enabled by default and cannot be disabled, because those functions will always send a response. For callback configuration functions it is enabled by default too, but can be disabled by set_response_expected(). For setter functions it is disabled by default and can be enabled.

Enabling the response expected flag for a setter function allows to detect timeouts and other error conditions calls of this setter as well. The device will then send a response for this purpose. If this flag is disabled for a setter function then no response is send and errors are silently ignored, because they cannot be detected.

See set_response_expected() for the list of function ID constants available for this function.

BrickletOLED64x48->set_response_expected($function_id, $response_expected)
Parameters:
  • $function_id -- int
  • $response_expected -- bool
Return type:

undef

Changes the response expected flag of the function specified by the function ID parameter. This flag can only be changed for setter (default value: false) and callback configuration functions (default value: true). For getter functions it is always enabled.

Enabling the response expected flag for a setter function allows to detect timeouts and other error conditions calls of this setter as well. The device will then send a response for this purpose. If this flag is disabled for a setter function then no response is send and errors are silently ignored, because they cannot be detected.

The following function ID constants are available for this function:

  • BrickletOLED64x48->FUNCTION_WRITE = 1
  • BrickletOLED64x48->FUNCTION_NEW_WINDOW = 2
  • BrickletOLED64x48->FUNCTION_CLEAR_DISPLAY = 3
  • BrickletOLED64x48->FUNCTION_SET_DISPLAY_CONFIGURATION = 4
  • BrickletOLED64x48->FUNCTION_WRITE_LINE = 6
BrickletOLED64x48->set_response_expected_all($response_expected)
Parameters:$response_expected -- bool
Return type:undef

Changes the response expected flag for all setter and callback configuration functions of this device at once.

BrickletOLED64x48->get_identity()
Return type:[string, string, char, [int, int, int], [int, int, int], int]

Returns the UID, the UID where the Bricklet is connected to, the position, the hardware and firmware version as well as the device identifier.

The position can be 'a', 'b', 'c' or 'd'.

The device identifier numbers can be found here. There is also a constant for the device identifier of this Bricklet.

The returned array contains the elements uid, connected_uid, position, hardware_version, firmware_version and device_identifier.

Constants

BrickletOLED64x48->DEVICE_IDENTIFIER

This constant is used to identify a OLED 64x48 Bricklet.

The get_identity() function and the CALLBACK_ENUMERATE callback of the IP Connection have a device_identifier parameter to specify the Brick's or Bricklet's type.

BrickletOLED64x48->DEVICE_DISPLAY_NAME

This constant represents the human readable name of a OLED 64x48 Bricklet.